Przegląd Glottodydaktyczny 1 (1978)

Spis treści

Franciszek Grucza: Cele i zadania „Przeglądu Glottodydaktycznego"
Andrzej Żor: Perspektywy rozwoju nauczania języków obcych w szkołach wyższych

Rozprawy i artykuły

Franciszek Grucza: Glottodydaktyka, jej zakres i problemy
Hanna Komorowska:Kompetencja językowa i jej uwarunkowania
Monika Woytowicz-Neymann: Nauczanie języka specjalistycznego w wyższej szkole ekonomicznej
Franciszek Grucza:O nauczaniu języków obcych w USA

Glottodydaktyka w szkole wyższej

Marceli Szafrański: Nauczanie języków obcych w systemie organizacyjnym w szkole wyższej w Polsce Ludowej
Stanisław Wojnicki: Cele nauczania na lektoratach języków obcych
Janusz Arabski: Przyczyny niepowodzeń na lektoratach

Recenzje i przeglądy

Peter S. Greek (ed.), The Language Laboratory In School. Performance and Prediction (Edmund A. Ronowicz)
S. Pit Corder, Introducing Applied Linguistics (Jerzy Bogucki)
Luis Trimble, Zlata Kipcić, Mia Gottwald, Nevenka Murgić, Davorka Celmić, New Horizons. A Reader in Scientific and Technical English (Jerzy Bogucki)
Jack C. Richards (ed.), Error Analysis – Perspectives an Second Language Acquisition (Krystyna Chomicz-Jung)
M.Fauquet, S. Strasfogel, L'audio-visuel au service de la formation des enseignants. Le circuit fermé de télévision (Stanisław Wojnicki)
Oskar Perlin, Zarys gramatyki języka hiszpańskiego (Włodzimierz Korcz, Mirosław Moczulski)
Lothar Hoffmann, Kommunikationsmittel Fachsprache. Eine Einfűhrung (Marian Kalinowski)
Franz Loeser, Rationelles Lesen, Eine anleitung zum schnelleren und grűndlicheren Lesen (Zenon Grabarczyk)
Joanna Korzeniewska-Nalepińska, Anna Sobczyk, Krótki słownik polski-rosyjski terminologii glottodydaktycznej (Jan Lewandowski)
Leszek Klimczyk, Материалы для практических занятий по русскому языку для студентов матемтических факультетов (Lidia Bartoszewicz)

Sprawozdania i informacje

IV Ogólnopolskie Sympozjum Instytutu Lingwistyki Stosowanej (Elżbieta Kaźmierczak, Zofia Kozłowska)

Bibliografia

Franciszek Grucza,Jan Lewandowski: Bibliografie lingwistyczne i glottodydaktyczne.

 

Contents / Abstracts

 

Franciszek Grucza: Aims and Tasks of the GlottodidacticReview
Andrzej Żor: New Vistas in Foreign language Teaching in Collage

The socio-economic progress and the development of science and technology call for constant improvement in the forms and methods of FLT at all levels of educa­tion, including the teacher training and FLT at institutions of higher education. The concept behind FLT and these schools should reflect the aims of continued and specialized teaching, which in turn would depend on the character of studies and language requirements among students. The concept is to be introduced over the coming years, which necessitates modernizing the academic didactics and giving FLT the status enjoyed by other subjects taught.

A detailed analysis of the teaching staff (taking account of their education, age, teaching load and possibilities to improve their professional skills) and the structure of FLT at different schools (taking account of their technical equipment and teaching materials produced at present) suggest now the possibility to gra­dually introduce the solutions which are in accordance with the general outlines of the above mentioned concept to reorganize FLT. The scientific, organizational and technological issues involved have become the subject of study to be carried out under the Ministerial Project: Methods of Improving FLT at College Level. The Project is to be carried out in the years 1976-1980 and supervised by the Institute of Applied Linguistics, Warsaw University. In this context the Research Centre for Foreign Language Teaching has been created, the activities of which should concentrate in 1976-1980 on: (i) working out uniform syllabi of four main languages taught (English, French, German and Russian); (ii) verifying the lists of FLT materials suggested for publishing by different schools; (iii) working out a standard of didactic equipment, including, among others, audio-visual aids; (iv) improving the professional abilities of teachers, setting a model towards achieving this end.

Discussions and Articles

Franciszek Grucza: Glottodidactics: Its Scope and Problem

The history of glottodidactics is fairly short. At the outset the activities in this domain did not consist in scientific research but in setting up various foreign language teaching methods. However, the foreign language teaching methods have proved not to be the primary object of glottodidactic research. In fact it i:s a discription and an explication of glottodi lactic chain that are the primary tasks of this discipline. The learner is the main elernent in this chain, and the language acquisition is the main issue to be studied. The description and explica­tion of 'these - and other - elements involved in the glottodidactic chain consti­tute research objectives of pure glottodidactics. Applied glottodidact'cs forms a kind of superstructure with respect to pure glottodidactics, and its objective is to obtain appl9cative information with the aid of which such applications, ctm be arrived at as models of materials, models of teaching and/or learning foreign languages. The author describes a model of glottodidactics based on the abok7e assumption and discusses perspectives of glottodidactic research as well as possib­le eorrelations of this model with practical glottodidactics. The alathor aLo con­siders correlations between glottodidactics and ancillary disciplines, such as linguistics and psychology.

Hanna Komorowska: Language Competence – its Conditioning

The article presents the results of study on the conditioning of language compe­tence acquired by secondary school students after a four-year course in English. The study has been based on all Polish typological representation and a random sample from within Warsaw Voivodship. The research has dealt with interrela­tionships between a block of individual, environmental and didactic factors on the one hand and the level of communicative and language competence among school graduates on the other.

Sub-chapter 1 deals with the investigated types of cause-effect relationships. Sub-chapter 2 deals with the analysis of communicative and language competence level in the whole sample under study, as well as in various sample layers cha­racterized, on the one hand, by a qualitatively different glottodidactic situation, and by an urban or rural context on the other. Correlates between the scales of flu­ency, richness of vocabulary, grammatical acceptability, pronunciation and the level of utterance communicativeness are also discussed. The degrees to which these factors have been mastered by school graduates are also indicated. Sub­chapter 3 displays a picture of individual variables within the sample and its layers. Sub-chapter 4 discusses variables pertaining to domestic and school en­vironment; finally Sub-chapter 5 presents didactic variables. Thus Sub-chapters 2-5 give us a diagnosis obtained with the help of global and layer percentage dis­tributions. Sub-chapter 6 analyzes the influence of psycho-didactic and environ­mental variables on the level of language competence. Variables pointing to statis­tically significant differences between the two types of competence are presented; similarities and differences in their conditioning are also indicated. Sub-chapter 7 deals with an analysis of contingency correlates, the aim of which is to estab­lish a hierarchy of individual variables which have been indicated in Sub-chapter 6 as essential for both types of competence. Each sub-chapter ends with conclu­sions referring to the problems discussed.

Monika Woytowicz-Neymann: Teaching a Foreign Language for Specific Purposes at the Institutes of Economics

The necessity of teaching the language for specific purposes to university students becomes more and more obvious. This demand, however, poses quite new tasks and problems for foreign language teachers.

Referring to the field of economics, the author points out that the language of economic register cannot be treated as a whole but should be split into many specializations. Thus learning terminology of, for example, political economy (although highly instructive for future economists) will not help them in under­standing scientific texts and discourses in their specialization. On the other hand texts of a definite line (e. g. banking, commerce, management, etc.) apart from their own terminology will introduce the vocabulary of general economics as well, since no specialization exists by itself, all specializations being branches of one main discipline.

Since the language for specific purposes brings in new words and phrases from the professional field of students' interests, and as printed texts and descrip­tions seem to be the most popular form of scientific discourse, oral skills and everyday language should not be taught on the basis of these materials. Neither does it seem sensible to drill grammar in the context of scientific terminology, for it prevents students from concentrating on only one aspect of learning at a time, e.g. on learning specialized terminology. This brings us to the conclusion that language for specific purposes should not come before the basic knowledge of everyday language has been acquired. On the other hand the idea that pro­ficiency in everyday language automatically facilitates understanding the language used for special purposes is highly confusing, since very few of our students know this everyday language well, and neither are there any good dictionaries of eco­nomics available. That is why teaching languages for specific purposes to univer­sity students is absolutely necessary. The purpose of this teaching should be to enable the student to develop extensive reading and text comprehension skills, as well as to acquire a good knowledge of specialized terminology.

To illustrate the above remarks the author describes the methodological prin­ciples of her textbook on the English language of banking and international finances for the students of the Central School of Planning and Statistics, Warsaw.

Franciszek Grucza: On a Foreign and Second Language Teaching in the United States

The author calls for conducting glottodidactic contrastive studies aimed at a comparison of practical - both organizational and methodical - arrangements in foreign language teaching adopted in various countries. Due regard ought to be paid to the general system of education in a given country and to the status of glottodidactics within this system. Since the abolition of its obligatoriness. the foreign language teaching at US universities and schools has reached an impasse, what has also affected in a specific manner the development of glotto­didactics on a scientific plane in that country. Bearing this fact in mind we are in a better position to understand such phenomena as, e.g., a growing interest in "wonder" methods, a diminishing interest in language laboratories, a belief in the omnipotence of the cognitive approach to foreign language teaching. A rela­tively big gap between the glottodidactic theory and practice is a characteristic feature of the USA. For instance, while the audio-lingual method has been utterly discredited at the Olympian academic heights, nevertheless this method prevails at most of the schools in which foreign language teaching has been retained. The author discusses a number of related issues, pointing to organiza­tional and methodical differences between the foreign language teaching and the teaching of English as a foreign language in the USA.

Glottodidactics at University

Marceli Szafrański: Foreign Language Teaching at University of Poland: Organizational Aspects

The article makes a general survey of problems involved in the organization and scientific activity of the FLT centres at institutes of higher learning in Poland. The author presents the background in which the centres developed after World War Ii, and discusses the main regulations pertaining to FLT at the schools in question. The article describes the structure of FLT centres at different schools, languages taught, varying amount of time assigned to language courses, and it stresses the variety existing in this respect. The author points to the inadequacy of FLT at the elementary level if 120 hours are assigned for the course. Other activities of FLT centres discussed here include teaching Polish to foreign stu­dents, FLT for scientists and candidates for the doctoral degree, FLT at extra­mural and evening courses and summer schools. The article calls attention to the lack of a well-defined FLT programme at the schools.

The author presents data to characterize the teaching staff, their professional competence, the rate at which new FL teachers are trained. All of these point to an insufficient number of university graduates undertaking these teaching jobs. Data concerning both the FL entrance examinations to institutions of higher lear­ning in the years 1962-1974, and the final language examinations are also dis­cussed.

Stanisław Wojnicki: Foreign Language Teaching Objectives in Non-Linguistic Departments

The article is based on a survey carried out in FLT Centres of 51 institutions of higher learning throughout Poland (including universities, schools of technology; education, agriculture and economics). The survey was designed and executed by the Research Centre for FLT, University of Warsaw. It concerned various aspects of the teaching process: students, teaching objectives, methods, testing, amount of class work, teaching materials and teachers.

Appropriately formulated teaching objectives are a basic condition of the effectiveness of a language course. An analysis of the situation in non-linguistic departments in Poland leads to the conclusion that the only aim realistic both from the point of view of the schools' possibilities and future needs of the students is reading comprehension of specialized texts. It should constitute the minimal achie­vement of every student, which does not exclude the possibility of further or parallel acquisition of more skills in the foreign language.

The survey has shown that numerous schools assign their FLT courses either vague or unrealistic aims, such as "practical mastery of the language" or "trans­lating texts". In many cases the teaching of everyday language prevails, at the expense of teaching its specialized variety; reading specialized literature is often left unmentioned among the teaching objectives. This indicates that no rational analysis of the situation was made before formulating the objectives.

The question of the number of teaching levels is also discussed; it is pointed out that three levels are necessary if teaching is to be effective, considering the specific conditions of FLT at secondary schools in Poland.

Janusz Arabski: Causes of Failures in Foreign Language Learning at University

The purpose of the study is to investigate the effectiveness of foreign language teaching at the university level and to point to the ways of its improvement. The study has been based on the data obtained from the Pstrowski Politechnic of Silesia in Gliwice, Silesian Medical Academy in Zabrze and the University o_ Silesia in Katowice, the total number of questionnaires being 3120. The analysed data point to the following as the main sources of low effectiveness in the foreign language teaching in question: (1) the scarcity of time assigned to foreign language teaching at the university level; (2) low motivation on the part of the students; 3) extensiveness of teaching; (4) lack of good teaching materials.

Under the present circumstances the following solutions can be postulated: (1) to confine FLT to one language and thus increase the total number of hours devoted to FLT (this refers specifically to those universities, technical or otherwise, where two or more foreign languages are being taught); (2) to consider it aimless to assign less than 120 hours to FLT courses; (3) to make Nasses more attractive to students by making ample use of audio-visual aids and interesting teaching materials, thus boosting students moti­vation; (4) to double the number of hours assigned to FLT and to shorten the dura­tion of language courses by hali' in order to intensify the teaching process.

Reviews and notices

Peter S. Greek (ed.), The Language Laboratory In School. Performance and Prediction (Edmund A. Ronowicz)
S. Pit Corder, Introducing Applied Linguistics (Jerzy Bogucki)
Luis Trimble, Zlata Kipcić, Mia Gottwald, Nevenka Murgić, Davorka Celmić, New Horizons. A Reader in Scientific and Technical English (Jerzy Bogucki)
Jack C. Richards (ed.), Error Analysis – Perspectives an Second Language Acquisition (Krystyna Chomicz-Jung)
M.Fauquet, S. Strasfogel, L'audio-visuel au service de la formation des enseignants. Le circuit fermé de télévision (Stanisław Wojnicki)
Oskar Perlin, Zarys gramatyki języka hiszpańskiego (Włodzimierz Korcz, Mirosław Moczulski)
Lothar Hoffmann, Kommunikationsmittel Fachsprache. Eine Einfűhrung
Franz Loeser, Rationelles Lesen, Eine anleitung zum schnelleren und grűndlicheren Lesen (Zenon Grabarczyk)
Joanna Korzeniewska-Nalepińska, Anna Sobczyk, Krótki słownik polski-rosyjski terminologii glottodydaktycznej (Jan Lewandowski)
Leszek Klimczyk, Материалы для практических занятий по русскому языку для студентов матемтических факультетов (Lidia Bartoszewicz)

Notes and Reports

4th Annual Symposium organized by the Institute of Applied linguistics (Elżbieta Kaźmierczak, Zofia Kozłowska)

Bibliography

Franciszek Grucza,Jan Lewandowski: Linguistic and glottodidactic bibliographies