Lingwistyka Stosowana, nr 4: 2011
Sambor GRUCZA: Lingwistyka Stosowana – aktualne paradygmaty badawcze / Applied Linguistics – current research paradigms Link
Rozprawy i artykuły / Discussions and articles / Abstracts
Halina CHODKIEWICZ: Nauczanie języka przez treść: założenia i rozwój koncepcji / Content-based language teaching: Assumptions and concept development Link
The concept of content-based language teaching enhancing the need for a principled integration and counterbalancing of language and content components in L2/FL instruction has been fervently discussed by numerous specialists all over the world and found beneficial to apply in a variety of educational contexts. With some generally accepted assumptions, it can take many different forms concerning a sequence of lessons, content-based courses or full bilingual programs. Yet, no consensus as for the thorough understanding of the concept and particularly its theoretical underpinnings has been reached so far due to changing views on the conceptualization of instructed language acquisition, learning/teaching processes, language proficiency as well as disciplinary text comprehension. Several recently offered pedagogically-oriented models that have been an attempt at establishing a rationale for effective language-content integration in content-based language instruction have pointed at its potential as well as limitations.
Anna MICHOŃSKA-STADNIK Trafność i rzetelność w badaniach glottodydaktycznych / Validity and reliability in second/ foreign language acquisition research Link
For years second language acquisition (SLA) studies have been using research methods originally employed in other social sciences, e.g. in psychology and sociology. A unique character of SLA investigations, resulting from their specific conditions and actions (i.e. researching language skills versus knowledge), allowed for a number of developments in research methods, especially in the area of validity and reliability of their procedures and instruments. Statistical measures, exceptionally popular about ten years ago, appeared to be not fully adequate to give a true picture of the complex process of language acquisition and its variables. What is proposed nowadays are mixed research types, both qualitative and quantitative, successfully applying instruments appropriate for each type respectively. Consequently, the problem of research credibility should be considered with more attention. The concepts of validity and reliability of research studies and instruments should be regarded from both the qualitative and quantitative perspective. Each research type requires a different approach to these two basic constructs, and studies of mixed character will have to make an adequate use of qualitative and quantitative interpretations of validity and reliability.
Ewa WANIEK-KLIMCZAK: Paradygmaty badawcze w nauczaniu wymowy/ języka mówionego w kontekście komunikacji międzynarodowej / Research Paradigms in Teaching Pronunciation and Speaking for International Communication Link
Research in teaching pronunciation and speaking skills in non-native languages tends to follow either strictly model-based ‘prescriptive' paradigm or a combination of descriptive with normative, based on a clearly specified point of reference as the target. While these approaches may bring valuable insights into the study of second and/or foreign language speech, the use of a language for international communication presents new challenges. With a rapid increase in the number of speakers of English who use the language as ‘lingua franca' there is a need to revise the paradigm, creating research programs that will be able to answer specific questions concerning priorities in teaching effective communication in English. On the basis of examples from Polish students of English, potential problems in the area of pronunciation and vocabulary are discussed. The paper concludes by suggesting a research program aiming at establishing priorities in teaching English for international communication to Polish learners.
Halina WIDŁA: Skuteczność nauczania drugiego języka obcego – próba zastosowania wyników badań w praktyce / Efficiency in the second foreign language teaching – using research results in practice Link
The article presents some remarks on the phenomena which accompany trilingualism of students with language competence in English at the B2 level and in French at the A1 level, learning French through the communicative method approach during the first year of studies. From the point of view of linguistic observation, at the very beginning of the learning process, it is possible to observe: code switching, various forms of transfer and exceptionally interesting psycholinguistic phenomena. The choice of electronic assistance described in the article is motivated by the need for an effective help for aiding the students in this new situation, which seems to be fully justified given the fact that such assistance is missing from the available didactic materials. These complementary exercises allow the teachers to focus on the contents they wish to impart and the competences they wish to develop.
Monika ADAMCZYK-GARBOWSKA: Przekład literacki w Polsce – stan badań nad jego historią i postulaty na przyszłość / Literary Translation in Poland – The Present State of Research and Postulates for the Future Link
Literary translation has played a very important role in Poland since the middle ages, for it contributed to the development of the language itself as well as literature written originally in Polish. New trends from abroad were often transmitted via translation and helped shape and stimulate Polish literature. No wonder that numerous books and articles have been devoted to various aspects of literary translation. However, so far no complex and systematic research has been carried out in Poland. The author of the article stresses the need for a comprehensive publication which could be partly modelled on the five volume Oxford History of Literary Translation in English that was launched in 2005. A prospective history of literary translation in Polish could be augmented with a series of maps which would show the shifting position of various translated literatures within the corpus of Polish literature, based on the concept of literary polisystem developed by Itamar Even-Zohar.
Barbara Z. KIELAR: On Langauge(s) of the Law and Guiding Principle in Translating Statutory Texts Link
Badania nad językami prawa prowadzą zarówno lingwiści, jak i prawnicy, każda grupa zawodowa w nieco innym zakresie. Prawnicy skupiają uwagę na instytucjach państwa i prawa, tworzeniu i stosowaniu przepisów prawa i na kwestiach (re)konstruowania norm prawnych. Lingwiści natomiast interesują się komunikacją językową w zakresie prawa w różnych kontekstach oraz istotą języków prawa występujących jako idiolekty i polilekty specjalistyczne. Tworzenie tekstu zamierzonego jako prawny/ustawowy odbywa się w zinstytucjonalizowanym kontekście działania różnych zespołów oraz organów prawotwórczych w ramach państwa, przy użyciu odpowiednich języków prawa. Natomiast czystą fikcją prawną jest koncepcja tzw. racjonalnego prawodawcy, który używa języka prawnego. O przebiegu i sposobie tłumaczenia tekstów prawnych decyduje w pierwszym rzędzie funkcja przekładu w społeczeństwie docelowym: (1) regulacyjna (z mocy prawa), lub (2) czysto informacyjna.
Roman LEWICKI: Przekładoznawstwo w kontekście lingwistyki stosowanej / Translation Studies in the context of Applied Linguistics Link
The relation of Translation Studies to Applied Linguistics is not presently the question unequivocally perceived or determined. In particular, it should be considered if it is reasonable to place Translation Studies within the framework of Applied Linguistics which is done by the authors who refer to F. Grucza's claims. Deliberations on this issue, conducted with reference to various concepts in translatology, make the author acknowledge that Translation Studies is a linguistic discipline, but as a whole, is not embraced within Applied Linguistics. The theory of translation, i.e. theoretical studies of translation, should be placed outside Applied Linguistics, leaving within its scope various areas of Applied Translation Studies, namely: translation criticism, translation didactics, studies of particular translation types, studies of translation in specific languages, and of particular text types, studies of community interpreting, and also – with certain reservations – the history of translation.
Konrad KLIMKOWSKI: Antropocentryczna teoria języków ludzkich jako podstawa dydaktyki translacji (na przykładzie programu studiów kształcących tłumaczy kabinowych) / The anthropocentric theory of human languages as a basis for translation didactics: the case of a simultaneous interpreting course Link
The anthropocentric theory of human languages proposed by F. Grucza, along with his theory of knowledge, make it explicit that knowledge is not passed on between people, but that each of us construct our knowledge on our own with the help of others. From the didactic point of view, this means teachers cannot pass their, nor anybody else's, knowledge on any student. In consequence, a redefinition of who the student and the teacher are in the translation classroom is indispensable. This paper provides the reader with a handful of solutions in this respect. The greatest emphasis is laid on the role of the student-teacher interaction, which is defined as pedagogically instrumental, on condition it is set in the task-oriented learning environment. A reason for this emphasis is that well-designed student-teacher interaction leads to a substantial growth in student's and teacher's autonomy, especially when supported by a well-defined system of assessment. The autonomy in question is a strategic feature, as its impact concerns not only the context of the translation classroom, but – first and foremost – student's and teacher's effective professional performance. As a case study, a newly designed course in interpreter education is discussed to show how its authors try to implement the ideas discussed in the paper.
Jolanta PANASIUK: Afazja a bilingwizm / Aphasia and bilingualism Link
For many years, researchers have concentrated on two basic questions. The first concerns the nature of language representation – are bilinguals' two languages represented in distinct or overlapping areas of the brain. The second, in the neuropsychology of bilingualism, concerns the neural correlates of language switching, the areas that are active when bilinguals switch from one language to the other. Verbal behavior is realized simultaneously in three areas of reality: biological and physical reality (working of the speech production and perception systems), mental reality (functioning of an abstract sign system and grammatical rules), social reality (application of language rules, social rank of interlocutor and intentions of speaker). Men's verbal behavior is realized simultaneously in three areas of reality: biological and physical reality (working of the speech production and perception systems governed by brain centers), mental reality (functioning of an abstract sign system and grammatical rules in the mind), and social reality (application of language rules defining the ways in which texts are executed adequately to the situation, social rank of the interlocutor and intentions of the speaker). The aphasia requires data from numerous fields used for the diagnosis, clinical description and therapy. These fields comprise: neurology (organic and local diagnosis), psychology (functional diagnosis), linguistics (the description of linguistic behavior) and sociology (age, sex, social background, etc). Speech is a complex, structured and controlled process. The course of the successive stages of forming an utterance is controlled by linguistic knowledge, depending on the character of linguistic reflection, of two types: "the knowledge how..." (metalinguistic competence), and "the knowledge that..." (linguistic-competence). In conclusion, results point to the importance of factors such as social context, pre and post morbid language skills and systematic analysis of bilingual's languages in different communicative contexts as important factors in evaluating code switching. Research indicate clinical necessity of modifying existing methods of description and therapy to suit them the needs of bilingual aphasics, considering the heterogeneous nature of the phenomena.
Beata MIKOŁAJCZYK: Interpersonalność jako cecha tekstów naukowych na przykładzie przedmowy do monografii naukowej / Interpersonality as a feature of academic texts – on the basis of a preface to a scientific monograph Link
The article presents the results of deliberations on the specific genre of texts which is named as "a preface" or "a foreword in a scientific monograph". These deliberations are complemented with the results of a linguistic analysis of specific texts representing this genre. Generally, each text of this type consists of: (i) a title page, (ii) a table of contents, (iii) a foreword/ preface, (iv) a list of abbreviations (optional), (v) the main text (scientific argument), (vi) a bibliography, (vii) (author, subject, etc.) indexes (optional). A preface includes comments and explanations of the main text. Thus, its role is to (a) explain the aim of the work, (b) express the author's motives, (c) give guidelines on how to use it, (d) determine the group of its addressees, (e) discuss the structure of the monograph, (f) ensure the adequate understanding of the main text. The characteristic element of prefaces to scientific monographs is the use of the personal pronoun "I" by the authors. The article presents and discusses the results of a few preface texts analyses from the perspective of the way it is realized in them.
Sambor GRUCZA: Lingwistyka antropocentryczna a badania okulograficzne / Anthropocentric Linguistics and Eye-Tracking Research Link
The consequence of acknowledging that language abilities are an inherent property of man is that the actual speaker/ listener has come to the foreground of linguistic deliberations and thereby the emphasis in these reflections and in the research has been shifted to what is happening in the brain as far as language processes are concerned. The last few decades, due to increasingly modern technological solutions, have brought about the possibility of more detailed and in-depth explorations of human brain functioning and its properties.
In the first part of the present article, the characteristics of the object of research in linguistics are presented, and in the second, the possibilities of its exploration are described. Special attention was focused on the possibilities of using eye-tracking research in applied linguistics. Summing up the observations, it should be admitted that in order to make progress in linguistics and to be innovative, experimental research carried out using apparatus must be incorporated and started. However, it must be emphasized that this type of experimental research in linguistics, including obviously eye-tracking studies, is scientifically relevant only to the point that it really contributes to the creation of new knowledge or the verification of scientific knowledge gained earlier, and only if it contributes to the scientific exploration of the object of linguistics.
Iwona MAZUR, Agnieszka CHMIEL: Odzwierciedlenie percepcji osób widzących w opisie dla osób niewidomych. Badania okulograficzne nad audiodeskrypcją / Reflecting perception of sighted audiences in description for the blind. Eye-tracking research in audio description Link
Professional audio describers often face a dilemma what to include in their descriptions, how to order described elements and what to omit due to time constraints. It is thus useful to examine how particular film scenes are perceived by sighted viewers and to what extent audio description can influence that perception. This paper is a work-in-progress report on the first stage of an eye-tracking study. The participants watched clips from "Marie Antoinette" by Sofia Coppola and responded to questions afterwards. The data analysis focused on the number of fixations and the total observation time in selected Areas of Interest and gaze sequences in selected scenes. The results can contribute to further development of audio description standards by showing audio describers how the perception of sighted viewers should be reflected in the description in order to facilitate scene comprehension for the blind and visually impaired.
Monika PŁUŻYCZKA: Okulograficzne wsparcie badań nad procesem tłumaczenia a vista / Eye-tracking aided research on the sight translation process Link
The article focuses on empirical research of the cognitive aspect of the translation process that provides new research possibilities arising from the rapid technological advancement. After presenting a historical overview and discussing the latest technological approaches to this kind of research, the author concentrates on the possibilities and prospects of the eye-tracking analysis in translation studies, especially as regards the sight translation process analysis. The author justifies the need for research using measurement and brain imaging technologies which will help understand the cognitive processes that occur in the translator's brain and the way that information is processed and reproduced.
Katarzyna HRYNIUK: Okulograficzne wsparcie badań nad procesem czytania / Reading research supported with eye-tracking methods Link
Eye-tracking reading research has long history which dates back to the second half of the 19th century. In those early times, the simplicity of the equipment used did not allow to carry out research on a large scale but the main facts concerning eye movements were discovered. The situation changed in the late 1970s when computers equipped with eye-tracking systems were introduced. Due to this development large number of studies on cognitive processes, perception, attention, etc. started, revealing enormous potential of this method. The author of the article emphasizes the possibilities of its implementation in foreign language didactics.
The article presents a few significant facts concerning eye movements during reading on the basis of which conclusions about the mental processes involved can be drawn. It shortly describes the ways in which the process of reading is usually understood emphasizing the importance of subskills which are crucial in fluent reading in a foreign language. It gives examples of studies where eye-tracking methodology largely contributes to the investigation of the process of reading but the author points to the importance of application of other research methods apart from the technologically advanced eye-tracking equipment when needed.
Ewa ZWIERZCHOŃ-GRABOWSKA: Okulograficzne wsparcie badań nad procesem tłumaczenia pisemnego / Eye tracking aided research on the process of written translation Link
The aim of the article is to present the possibilities of application of eye tracking in translation studies. Thanks to the development of noninvasive methods for measuring eye motion and computer technologies witch allows to record and analyze the huge volume of data that eye movement generates, eye tracking research expands intensively, particularly reading research, marketing research, human-computer interaction. The eye tracking research results show that eyes do not move continuously along a line of text, but their movement is typically divided into fixations and saccades. The eyetracker can also measure the time of fixations and saccades and record regressions or series of fixations and saccades – so called scanpaths. The article discusses how this data could be used to research the translation process. For the described translation studies there is chosen an optical method for measuring eye motion, in which a video based eyetracker records the movement of the eye gaze as the translator looks at the source-language text or at the target-language text during translation. The author of the article defines the research questions about translation process, which could be answered thanks to the data gathered in these studies.
Elżbieta PLEWA: Okulograficzne wsparcie badań nad procesem tłumaczenia audio-wizualnego / Eye-tracking aided research on the audiovisual translation process Link
The present paper discusses the eye-tracking aided research on the audiovisual translation process. The paper begins with a short description of what eyetracking is and how it works. The author then makes an attempt to determine to which activities of the translator the expression "audiovisual translation" refers – in other words, she makes an attempt to define the name "audiovisual translation". In the further part of the paper she tries to answer the question of what is supposed to be translated in the audiovisual text, such as the film, depending on the final recipient. Another issue which is addressed is specifying to which fragment of the reality the name "subtitling" refers and differentiating this reality. Part five presents the possibilities of applying an eyetracker to the research on subtitling for persons who are able to hear in the film. The final part of the paper includes short information on the eyetracking research conducted for other audiovisual translation methods.
Ewa BARTOSZEWICZ: Kilka uwag lingwistycznych na temat tekstów z zakresu prawa / A few linguistic remarks on texts about law Link
The aim of the paper is to investigate certain semantic properties in texts dealing with acts of law from the point of view of F. Grucza's anthropocentric theory of human languages. The intention is to outline the problems experienced by people with no legal training and linguists investigating texts about the law. It will be shown how languages and texts used for specific purposes are defined from the view point of Grucza's theory. Furthermore, it will point out that there are differences between the meanings of the expressions in the texts for specific purposes compared to their use in every-day communication. Finally, I shall refer to F. Grucza's suggestion of creating a special subfield of linguistics, called "legislative linguistics", which will concentrate on systematic analysis of texts dealing with the law.
Anna BAJEROWSKA: Antropocentryczna a korelatywna koncepcja wiedzy i informacji / Anthropocentric and Correlative Models of Knowledge and Information Link
According to the anthropocentric definition of information by F. Grucza (1997), information is to be perceived as a dynamic individual phenomenon rather than a spatially determined static mental entity. Stimuli impinging on the receptor's receptive field are identified by the receiver of a given piece of information as an individual phenomenon as well as categorized (on the basis of stimulus' distinctive features) as a potential component of a certain information set. Considering its dynamic character, the anthropocentric theory of information demands a profound reflection on its applicative dimension. Therefore, this article attempts to present F. Grucza's theses in the context of the modern correlative models of knowledge and their experimental background.
Loretta BERTELLE: Dwujęzyczność w świetle najnowszych badań naukowych / Bilingualism in the light of the latest scientific research Link
People have been widely discussing advantages of bilingualism recently. The article presents a review of the latest scientific research carried out on children, adults and elderly people, and achievements in different branches of knowledge. The writer discusses the influence of bilingualism on creative thinking, delay of Alzheimer's disease, brain activity and linguistic and cognitive child's development in detail.
Sebastian CHUDAK: Refleksja nad uczuciami i emocjami towarzyszącymi procesowi uczenia się a podręczniki do nauki języków obcych / Reflection on feelings and emotions accompanying the language learning process and language learning textbooks Link
The aim of the article is to discuss the possibilities of supporting the learner's reflection on positive, negative or ambivalent feelings and emotions, which are part of the language learning process. That kind of reflection, which is an activity that also supports the development of language learner's autonomy, helps the learner to understand and to manage their learning process. To know how to manage all the emotional factors affecting learning, including motivation, attitudes, self-esteem and anxiety levels, it is necessary to know many indirect language learning strategies. By knowing and using them the learner can gain control over the business of language learning and achieve good results.It seems to be an important job of the language teacher to pass on all the relevant information on the mentioned strategies. It is also important to include that kind of information in the language learning textbooks. In the recent years many of them have begun to embed strategies into their content. The goal of this article is to discuss the form and the quality of the strategy training offered in the textbooks for German as foreign language.
Jan ŁOMPIEŚ: Antropocentryczne spojrzenie na niektóre aspekty komunikacji językowej / Anthropocentric view of certain aspects of human communication Link
The article discusses certain aspects of human communication viewed from the perspective of the anthropocentric language theory developed by F. Grucza. In the first part the author presents general principles of the anthropocentric language theory and explains the ontological status of language as an inherent attribute of a man. Along with two other inherent attributes of homo sapiens, i.e. its individual knowledge and culture, these three components form a triad of an integral cognitive device of a man. One of the key points of this theory consists in the elucidation of commonly mistaken comprehension of the so-called knowledge transfer allegedly occurring during the communication process. This transfer may only occur with reference to the stream of signs and not to the knowledge itself. The second part of the article is concerned with the process of specialist communication and certain determinant factors of successful communication. Among the underlying factors discussed are some linguistic as well as extra-linguistic skills whose classification is proposed by the author on the basis of the anthropocentric language theory.
Marta MAŁACHOWICZ: Rekonstrukcja wiedzy a tekst odbiorcy / Knowledge reconstruction and a receiver's text Link
The article is an attempt to describe the phenomenon of ‘knowledge reconstruction' meant as understanding a sender's text by a receiver. Texts excerpted from two well-known publications on economics by P. Kotler, P. Samuelson and W. Nordhaus and their Polish and Russian translations served as empirical material for the study. The research was based on analysis of so-called conceptual (semantic) network in the original text and its transfer in translated texts. The author distinguishes complete transfer (complete ‘mapping') or modification (extended or narrowed network). The other part of the research is the problem of content transformation in target-language text. The author finds several forms of content transformation (content amplification, content simplification and content destruction), exemplified by particular sentences. Statistical data on the examined texts is given in conclusion to the article.
Recenzje i przeglądy / Reviews and Notices
Paweł Bąk, Małgorzata Sieradzka, Zdzisław Wawrzyniak (red.), Texte und Translation (= Danziger Beiträge zur Germanistik Bd. 29, hrsg. von Andrzej Kątny). Peter Lang, Frankfurt am Main 2010, 302 s. (Katarzyna LUKAS) Link
Magdalena Duś, Grażyna Zenderowska-Korpus (Hrsg.), Fachsprachenpropädeutik im Germanistikstudium. Wydawnictwo Wyższej Szkoły Lingwistycznej w Częstochowie, Częstochowa 2010, 183 s. (Sambor GRUCZA) Link
Heinrike Fetzer, Chatten mit dem Vorstand: Die Rolle der unternehmensinternen Kommunikation für organisatorischen Wandel im Unternehmen. Narr Verlag, Tübingen, 2010, 373 s. (Justyna ZAJĄC) Link
Elżbieta Gajewska, Techniki nauczania języka obcego. Tarnów, Wydawnictwo PWSZ, (2011). 153 s. (Aleksandra ŁYP-BIELECKA) Link
Andrzej Kątny (Hrsg.), Studien zur angewandten Germanistik II (= Studia Germanica Gedanensia 23), Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Gdańskiego, Gdańsk 2010, 467 s. (Magdalena SZULC-BRZOZOWSKA) Link
John Kennedy, Aviation English. For ICAO Compliance. Teacher's Book. Macmillan Publishers Limited, 2008, 127 pp. (Anna BOROWSKA) Link
Renata Nadobnik, Znaczenie słowników bilingwalnych w dydaktyce języka niemieckiego w Polsce, Wydawnictwo Państwowej Wyższej Szkoły Zawodowej w Gorzowie Wielkopolskim, Gorzów Wielkopolski 2010, 242 s. (Magdalena LISIECKA-CZOP) Link
Sebastian Piotrowski (red.), O nauczaniu i uczeniu się języka obcego dla potrzeb zawodowych. Seria 12/15 nr 2. Werset, Lublin 2011, 132 s. (Sambor GRUCZA) Link
Mariola Wierzbicka, Zdzisław Wawrzyniak (red.), Grammatik im Text und Diskurs (= Danziger Beiträge zur Germanistik Bd. 29, hrsg. von Andrzej Kątny). Peter Lang, Frankfurt am Main 2011, 392 s. (Sambor GRUCZA) Link
Weronika Wilczyńska, Anna Michońska-Stadnik, Metodologia badań w glottodydaktyce. Wprowadzenie. Avalon, Kraków 2009, 295 s. (Aleksandra Aniela SZYMAŃSKA) Link
Komunikaty i sprawozdania / News and Reports
Vielheit und Einheit der Germanistik weltweit. XII Kongres Międzynarodowego Stowarzyszenia Germanistów (IVG) Warszawa, 30 lipca – 7 sierpnia 2010 r. Hans-Jörg SCHWENK, Reinhold UTRI, Justyna ZAJĄC, Ewa BARTOSZEWICZ Link
Translation Studies Days. Międzynarodowa konferencja naukowa Dyrekcji Generalnej ds. Tłumaczeń Pisemnych (DGT, Komisja Europejska), Bruksela, 17-18 lutego 2011 r. / Translation Studies Days. International scientific conference of the Derectorate-General for Written Translation (DGT, European Commission), Brussels, 17-18 February 2011. Anna JOPEK-BOSIACKA Link
Die Deutsche Sprache, Literatur und Kultur in (deutsch-polnischer) Interaktion. Konferencja Polskiego Stowarzyszenia Germanistów, Zielona Góra 17-19 czerwca 2011. / Die Deutsche Sprache, Literatur und Kultur in (deutsch-polnischer) Interaktion. A conference of the Polish Association of German Philologists, Zielona Góra 17-19 June 2011. Ewa ZWIERZCHOŃ-GRABOWSKA Link
Беларуска-польскія моўныя, літаратурныя і гістарычныя сувязі. Międzynarodowa Konferencja Naukowa Katedry Białorutynistyki UW, Hajnówka 15-17 września 2011 r. / Беларуска-польскія моўныя, літаратурныя і гістарычныя сувязі. International Scientific Conference of the Department of Belarusian Studies, Warsaw University, Hajnówka 15-17 September 2011. Dorota SKRZOS Link
Konzepte. Methoden, Untersuchungs- und Anwednugsbereiche der Textlinguistik. Textlinguistik im Wandel? Textlinguistik als Querschnittsdisziplin? Międzynarodowa konferencja naukowa zorganizowana przez Uniwersytet im. A. Mickiewicza, Uniwersytet Jagielloński i Uniwersytet Rzeszowski, 26-28 września 2011. / Konzepte. Methoden, Untersuchungs- und Anwednugsbereiche der Textlinguistik. Textlinguistik im Wandel? Textlinguistik als Querschnittsdisziplin? International scientific conference organized by Adam Mickiewicz University, Jagiellonian University and the University of Rzeszów, Słubice, 26-28 September 2011 Miłosz WOŹNIAK Link
Kompetencje językowe podstawą sukcesu zawodowego i społecznego w Europie. Konferencja zorganizowana przez polską prezydencję w Radzie UE, Warszawa 28-29 września 2011 r. / Multilingual Competences for Professional and Social Success in Europe. A conference organized in the framework of Polish Presidency of the EU Council, Warsaw 28-29 September 2011. Józefina Inesa PIĄTKOWSKA Link
Il Risorgimento nella lingua e nella cultura italiana. Międzynarodowa konferencja naukowa zorganizowana przez Instytut Kulturologii i Lingwistyki Antropocentrycznej UW i Włoski Instytut Kultury w Warszawie 13-14 października 2011. / Il Risorgimento nella lingua e nella cultura italiana. International scientific conference organized by the Instytute of Anthropocentric Linguistics and Culturology (Warsaw University) and the Italian Cultural Institute in Warsaw, 13-14 October 2011. Piotr PODEMSKI Link